The word theme can mean a lot of different things and invoke a lot of different interpretations, which can be both a blessing and a curse. In user interface design, the term theming is used for various purposes, including end-user customization, white labels, customizable UI components, and color variations such as dark and light modes. Here, I'd like to step back and look at some of the foundational concepts that libraries like Theme UI, Styled System, Rebass, and Basscss have been driven by. I've tried to codify some of these concepts in different implementations and APIs in various open source projects dating back to 2013, but many of these projects are aimed at a similar problem space. This isn't meant to be an exhaustive analysis of theming in general, but more of a framework for how to think about UI design and design systems, and how you can apply some of this thinking to your own work.
Global <--> Component
When it comes to styling, there is a dichotomy between styles that are global and styles that are scoped to individual components. Generally speaking, CSS tends towards the former and libraries like Styled Components tend towards the latter. When using any technology, how decoupled versus how scoped you choose to create your styles varies from application to application, and each approach has its merits. Considering the spectrum spanning from global to component-based styles can be a good yardstick for making decisions about styling responsibility when constructing a design system.
In the pure ideal that is CSS Zen Garden, styles are completely decoupled from components, allowing the components to remain the same while the styles are swapped out one-by-one. In practice, this is virtually impossible to achieve in a real world application with tens, hundreds, or thousands of contributors, and in situations that have devolved into append-only stylesheets. The global stylesheet can be thought of as a large object composed of many nested style objects that are intended for other components. CSS rulesets are mapped to components via CSS selectors, which is effectively a language-specific function that takes stylesheets and full HTML element trees as inputs, and applies styles to element trees.
With this sort of approach, dead code elimination, tree shaking, and dynamic code splitting of the styles is extremely difficult, but styles are available anywhere and everywhere they might be needed. For small sites and smaller teams, this approach can sometimes be the quickest and cheapest approach.
With a component-based approach, the default is complete isolation of styles. This gives you dead code elimination of styles for free. It also lends itself well to tree shaking and dynamic code splitting, which can create huge performance improvements, especially in larger applications. This also, inevitably, leads to duplication of styles. While libraries like Styled Components offer a theming context, the tendency is to use that as a simple mode switch rather than a store for shared styles.
scale: a graduated series of musical tones ascending or descending in order of pitch according to a specified scheme of their intervals
Styled System leverages the theming context in libraries like this to provide sets of style values in the form of scales that create the larger theme object. These scales create design constraints for specific style properties that help teams realize a consistent visual design language throughout an application's user interface. These scales become inputs to functional components. In component-based UI development, the resulting interface is a function of data and/or state. When styling interfaces, the theme object can be thought of as a part of state, where each component's styles becomes a function of the theme object, component-based styles, and component props.
With the abstraction provided by the theme object, different styling responsibilities can be put in different places. Color definitions, typographic styles, space scales, and other commonly used style values become the responsibility of the theme object. Dynamic styles, such as responsive styles based on viewport width, become the responsibility of the component, which lends itself well to contextual style changes based on content.
Update: the variants API in Styled System has changed since first publishing this post.
The division of responsibilities across the spectrum of global to component-based styles
gets a little murky when considering the variants API in Styled System.
Complete style objects can be stored in the global theme object and applied to components with a simple shorthand.
For example, a
Button component can switch between stylistic variants by setting the
variant prop, which pulls in values from the theme.
<Button variant='primary'>Beep</Button><Button variant='secondary'>Boop</Button>
While this can be good for developer ergonomics, it flies in the face of tree-shakeability and code splitting. Styles that would have otherwise been scoped to the component's module are now globally available. For commonly used styles like typography, this can make more sense, but it still blurs the lines of where this sort of responsibility should lie.
In Theme UI, markdown and MDX content can be styled using a
theme.styles object that uses base-level theme scales to style headings, paragraphs, lists, blockquotes, and other markdown elements.
This API too introduces a bit of ambiguity to the concept of theming, but it allows for near-complete typographic styles to be reused and shared across many different MDX documents.
In a way, the
theme.styles object is a component in a more abstract and conceptual sense.
The Right Way
I'm often asked which way is the right way to handle things like this. The short answer is, there are no wrong or right ways, but I think considering the implications of storing stylistic values in different places across the spectrum of global to component-based styles can be a useful framework for defining the API of a design system. All roads lead to Rome, so don't be afraid to explore new territory or wander off the beaten path from time to time.